The United Census Bureau defines disability as determined by the 6 standard questions asked in the American Community Survey (ACS). All sources below utilize this definition as their basis. https://www.census.gov/topics/health/disability/guidance/data-collection-acs.html
Comprehensive data around Labor force participation and unemployment on page 4. More slices can be found on pages 7+. It’s updated annually once previous data comes out in January. You cannot filter/dynamic search.
Cornell University provides a user friendly online resource tool for Disability Statistics that pulls from ACS data. You can filter by prevalence, employment, poverty, etc.